GNU Free Documentation License

GNU Free Documentation License

GNU Free Documentation License

Ver­si­on 1.3, 3 Novem­ber 2008

Copy­right © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Soft­ware Foun­da­ti­on, Inc. <>

Ever­yo­ne is per­mit­ted to copy and dis­tri­bu­te ver­ba­tim copies of this licen­se docu­ment, but chan­ging it is not allowed.


The pur­po­se of this Licen­se is to make a manu­al, text­book, or other func­tion­al and useful docu­ment “free” in the sen­se of free­dom: to assu­re ever­yo­ne the effec­ti­ve free­dom to copy and redis­tri­bu­te it, with or wit­hout modi­fy­ing it, eit­her com­mer­ci­al­ly or non­com­mer­ci­al­ly. Secon­da­ri­ly, this Licen­se pre­ser­ves for the aut­hor and publisher a way to get cre­dit for their work, while not being con­side­red respon­si­ble for modi­fi­ca­ti­ons made by others.

This Licen­se is a kind of “copy­left”, which means that deri­va­ti­ve works of the docu­ment must them­sel­ves be free in the same sen­se. It com­ple­ments the GNU Gene­ral Public Licen­se, which is a copy­left licen­se desi­gned for free software.

We have desi­gned this Licen­se in order to use it for manu­als for free soft­ware, becau­se free soft­ware needs free docu­men­ta­ti­on: a free pro­gram should come with manu­als pro­vi­ding the same free­doms that the soft­ware does. But this Licen­se is not limi­t­ed to soft­ware manu­als; it can be used for any tex­tu­al work, regard­less of sub­ject mat­ter or whe­ther it is published as a prin­ted book. We recom­mend this Licen­se prin­ci­pal­ly for works who­se pur­po­se is ins­truc­tion or reference.


This Licen­se appli­es to any manu­al or other work, in any medi­um, that con­ta­ins a noti­ce pla­ced by the copy­right hol­der say­ing it can be dis­tri­bu­ted under the terms of this Licen­se. Such a noti­ce grants a world-wide, royal­ty-free licen­se, unli­mi­t­ed in dura­ti­on, to use that work under the con­di­ti­ons sta­ted her­ein. The “Docu­ment”, below, refers to any such manu­al or work. Any mem­ber of the public is a licen­see, and is addres­sed as “you”. You accept the licen­se if you copy, modi­fy or dis­tri­bu­te the work in a way requi­ring per­mis­si­on under copy­right law.

A “Modi­fied Ver­si­on” of the Docu­ment means any work con­tai­ning the Docu­ment or a por­ti­on of it, eit­her copied ver­ba­tim, or with modi­fi­ca­ti­ons and/or trans­la­ted into ano­ther language.

A “Secon­da­ry Sec­tion” is a named appen­dix or a front-mat­ter sec­tion of the Docu­ment that deals exclu­si­ve­ly with the rela­ti­onship of the publishers or aut­hors of the Docu­ment to the Document’s over­all sub­ject (or to rela­ted mat­ters) and con­ta­ins not­hing that could fall direct­ly within that over­all sub­ject. (Thus, if the Docu­ment is in part a text­book of mathe­ma­tics, a Secon­da­ry Sec­tion may not explain any mathe­ma­tics.) The rela­ti­onship could be a mat­ter of his­to­ri­cal con­nec­tion with the sub­ject or with rela­ted mat­ters, or of legal, com­mer­cial, phi­lo­so­phi­cal, ethi­cal or poli­ti­cal posi­ti­on regar­ding them.

The “Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions” are cer­tain Secon­da­ry Sec­tions who­se titles are desi­gna­ted, as being tho­se of Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions, in the noti­ce that says that the Docu­ment is released under this Licen­se. If a sec­tion does not fit the abo­ve defi­ni­ti­on of Secon­da­ry then it is not allo­wed to be desi­gna­ted as Inva­ri­ant. The Docu­ment may con­tain zero Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions. If the Docu­ment does not iden­ti­fy any Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions then the­re are none.

The “Cover Texts” are cer­tain short pas­sa­ges of text that are lis­ted, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the noti­ce that says that the Docu­ment is released under this Licen­se. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A “Trans­pa­rent” copy of the Docu­ment means a machi­ne-rea­da­ble copy, repre­sen­ted in a for­mat who­se spe­ci­fi­ca­ti­on is available to the gene­ral public, that is sui­ta­ble for revi­sing the docu­ment straight­for­ward­ly with gene­ric text edi­tors or (for images com­po­sed of pixels) gene­ric paint pro­grams or (for dra­wings) some wide­ly available dra­wing edi­tor, and that is sui­ta­ble for input to text for­mat­ters or for auto­ma­tic trans­la­ti­on to a varie­ty of for­mats sui­ta­ble for input to text for­mat­ters. A copy made in an other­wi­se Trans­pa­rent file for­mat who­se mark­up, or absence of mark­up, has been arran­ged to thwart or dis­cou­ra­ge sub­se­quent modi­fi­ca­ti­on by rea­ders is not Trans­pa­rent. An image for­mat is not Trans­pa­rent if used for any sub­stan­ti­al amount of text. A copy that is not “Trans­pa­rent” is cal­led “Opaque”.

Examp­les of sui­ta­ble for­mats for Trans­pa­rent copies include plain ASCII wit­hout mark­up, Tex­in­fo input for­mat, LaTeX input for­mat, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and stan­dard-con­forming simp­le HTML, Post­Script or PDF desi­gned for human modi­fi­ca­ti­on. Examp­les of trans­pa­rent image for­mats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque for­mats include pro­prie­ta­ry for­mats that can be read and edi­ted only by pro­prie­ta­ry word pro­ces­sors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or pro­ces­sing tools are not gene­ral­ly available, and the machi­ne-gene­ra­ted HTML, Post­Script or PDF pro­du­ced by some word pro­ces­sors for out­put pur­po­ses only.

The “Title Page” means, for a prin­ted book, the title page its­elf, plus such fol­lo­wing pages as are nee­ded to hold, legi­bly, the mate­ri­al this Licen­se requi­res to appear in the title page. For works in for­mats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most pro­mi­nent appearance of the work’s title, pre­ce­ding the begin­ning of the body of the text.

The “publisher” means any per­son or enti­ty that dis­tri­bu­tes copies of the Docu­ment to the public.

A sec­tion “Entit­led XYZ” means a named sub­u­nit of the Docu­ment who­se title eit­her is pre­cis­e­ly XYZ or con­ta­ins XYZ in paren­the­ses fol­lo­wing text that trans­la­tes XYZ in ano­ther lan­guage. (Here XYZ stands for a spe­ci­fic sec­tion name men­tio­ned below, such as “Ack­now­led­ge­ments”, “Dedi­ca­ti­ons”, “Endor­se­ments”, or “Histo­ry”.) To “Pre­ser­ve the Title” of such a sec­tion when you modi­fy the Docu­ment means that it remains a sec­tion “Entit­led XYZ” accor­ding to this definition.

The Docu­ment may include War­ran­ty Dis­clai­mers next to the noti­ce which sta­tes that this Licen­se appli­es to the Docu­ment. The­se War­ran­ty Dis­clai­mers are con­side­red to be included by refe­rence in this Licen­se, but only as regards dis­clai­ming war­ran­ties: any other impli­ca­ti­on that the­se War­ran­ty Dis­clai­mers may have is void and has no effect on the mea­ning of this License.


You may copy and dis­tri­bu­te the Docu­ment in any medi­um, eit­her com­mer­ci­al­ly or non­com­mer­ci­al­ly, pro­vi­ded that this Licen­se, the copy­right noti­ces, and the licen­se noti­ce say­ing this Licen­se appli­es to the Docu­ment are repro­du­ced in all copies, and that you add no other con­di­ti­ons whatsoe­ver to tho­se of this Licen­se. You may not use tech­ni­cal mea­su­res to obs­truct or con­trol the rea­ding or fur­ther copy­ing of the copies you make or dis­tri­bu­te. Howe­ver, you may accept com­pen­sa­ti­on in exch­an­ge for copies. If you dis­tri­bu­te a lar­ge enough num­ber of copies you must also fol­low the con­di­ti­ons in sec­tion 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same con­di­ti­ons sta­ted abo­ve, and you may publicly dis­play copies.


If you publish prin­ted copies (or copies in media that com­mon­ly have prin­ted covers) of the Docu­ment, num­be­ring more than 100, and the Document’s licen­se noti­ce requi­res Cover Texts, you must enc­lo­se the copies in covers that car­ry, cle­ar­ly and legi­bly, all the­se Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also cle­ar­ly and legi­bly iden­ti­fy you as the publisher of the­se copies. The front cover must pre­sent the full title with all words of the title equal­ly pro­mi­nent and visi­ble. You may add other mate­ri­al on the covers in addi­ti­on. Copy­ing with chan­ges limi­t­ed to the covers, as long as they pre­ser­ve the title of the Docu­ment and satis­fy the­se con­di­ti­ons, can be trea­ted as ver­ba­tim copy­ing in other respects.

If the requi­red texts for eit­her cover are too volu­mi­nous to fit legi­bly, you should put the first ones lis­ted (as many as fit reason­ab­ly) on the actu­al cover, and con­ti­nue the rest onto adja­cent pages.

If you publish or dis­tri­bu­te Opaque copies of the Docu­ment num­be­ring more than 100, you must eit­her include a machi­ne-rea­da­ble Trans­pa­rent copy along with each Opaque copy, or sta­te in or with each Opaque copy a com­pu­ter-net­work loca­ti­on from which the gene­ral net­work-using public has access to down­load using public-stan­dard net­work pro­to­cols a com­ple­te Trans­pa­rent copy of the Docu­ment, free of added mate­ri­al. If you use the lat­ter opti­on, you must take reason­ab­ly pru­dent steps, when you begin dis­tri­bu­ti­on of Opaque copies in quan­ti­ty, to ensu­re that this Trans­pa­rent copy will remain thus acces­si­ble at the sta­ted loca­ti­on until at least one year after the last time you dis­tri­bu­te an Opaque copy (direct­ly or through your agents or retail­ers) of that edi­ti­on to the public.

It is reques­ted, but not requi­red, that you cont­act the aut­hors of the Docu­ment well befo­re redis­tri­bu­ting any lar­ge num­ber of copies, to give them a chan­ce to pro­vi­de you with an updated ver­si­on of the Document.


You may copy and dis­tri­bu­te a Modi­fied Ver­si­on of the Docu­ment under the con­di­ti­ons of sec­tions 2 and 3 abo­ve, pro­vi­ded that you release the Modi­fied Ver­si­on under pre­cis­e­ly this Licen­se, with the Modi­fied Ver­si­on fil­ling the role of the Docu­ment, thus licen­sing dis­tri­bu­ti­on and modi­fi­ca­ti­on of the Modi­fied Ver­si­on to whoe­ver pos­s­es­ses a copy of it. In addi­ti­on, you must do the­se things in the Modi­fied Version:

  • A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Docu­ment, and from tho­se of pre­vious ver­si­ons (which should, if the­re were any, be lis­ted in the Histo­ry sec­tion of the Docu­ment). You may use the same title as a pre­vious ver­si­on if the ori­gi­nal publisher of that ver­si­on gives permission.
  • B. List on the Title Page, as aut­hors, one or more per­sons or enti­ties respon­si­ble for aut­hor­ship of the modi­fi­ca­ti­ons in the Modi­fied Ver­si­on, tog­e­ther with at least five of the prin­ci­pal aut­hors of the Docu­ment (all of its prin­ci­pal aut­hors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
  • C. Sta­te on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modi­fied Ver­si­on, as the publisher.
  • D. Pre­ser­ve all the copy­right noti­ces of the Document.
  • E. Add an appro­pria­te copy­right noti­ce for your modi­fi­ca­ti­ons adja­cent to the other copy­right notices.
  • F. Include, imme­dia­te­ly after the copy­right noti­ces, a licen­se noti­ce giving the public per­mis­si­on to use the Modi­fied Ver­si­on under the terms of this Licen­se, in the form shown in the Adden­dum below.
  • G. Pre­ser­ve in that licen­se noti­ce the full lists of Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions and requi­red Cover Texts given in the Document’s licen­se notice.
  • H. Include an unal­te­red copy of this License.
  • I. Pre­ser­ve the sec­tion Entit­led “Histo­ry”, Pre­ser­ve its Title, and add to it an item sta­ting at least the title, year, new aut­hors, and publisher of the Modi­fied Ver­si­on as given on the Title Page. If the­re is no sec­tion Entit­led “Histo­ry” in the Docu­ment, crea­te one sta­ting the title, year, aut­hors, and publisher of the Docu­ment as given on its Title Page, then add an item describ­ing the Modi­fied Ver­si­on as sta­ted in the pre­vious sentence.
  • J. Pre­ser­ve the net­work loca­ti­on, if any, given in the Docu­ment for public access to a Trans­pa­rent copy of the Docu­ment, and like­wi­se the net­work loca­ti­ons given in the Docu­ment for pre­vious ver­si­ons it was based on. The­se may be pla­ced in the “Histo­ry” sec­tion. You may omit a net­work loca­ti­on for a work that was published at least four years befo­re the Docu­ment its­elf, or if the ori­gi­nal publisher of the ver­si­on it refers to gives permission.
  • K. For any sec­tion Entit­led “Ack­now­led­ge­ments” or “Dedi­ca­ti­ons”, Pre­ser­ve the Title of the sec­tion, and pre­ser­ve in the sec­tion all the sub­s­tance and tone of each of the con­tri­bu­tor ack­now­led­ge­ments and/or dedi­ca­ti­ons given therein.
  • L. Pre­ser­ve all the Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions of the Docu­ment, unal­te­red in their text and in their titles. Sec­tion num­bers or the equi­va­lent are not con­side­red part of the sec­tion titles.
  • M. Dele­te any sec­tion Entit­led “Endor­se­ments”. Such a sec­tion may not be included in the Modi­fied Version.
  • N. Do not retit­le any exis­ting sec­tion to be Entit­led “Endor­se­ments” or to con­flict in title with any Inva­ri­ant Section.
  • O. Pre­ser­ve any War­ran­ty Disclaimers.

If the Modi­fied Ver­si­on includes new front-mat­ter sec­tions or appen­di­ces that qua­li­fy as Secon­da­ry Sec­tions and con­tain no mate­ri­al copied from the Docu­ment, you may at your opti­on desi­gna­te some or all of the­se sec­tions as inva­ri­ant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions in the Modi­fied Version’s licen­se noti­ce. The­se titles must be distinct from any other sec­tion titles.

You may add a sec­tion Entit­led “Endor­se­ments”, pro­vi­ded it con­ta­ins not­hing but endor­se­ments of your Modi­fied Ver­si­on by various parties—for exam­p­le, state­ments of peer review or that the text has been appro­ved by an orga­niza­ti­on as the aut­ho­ri­ta­ti­ve defi­ni­ti­on of a standard.

You may add a pas­sa­ge of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a pas­sa­ge of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modi­fied Ver­si­on. Only one pas­sa­ge of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arran­ge­ments made by) any one enti­ty. If the Docu­ment alre­a­dy includes a cover text for the same cover, pre­vious­ly added by you or by arran­ge­ment made by the same enti­ty you are acting on behalf of, you may not add ano­ther; but you may replace the old one, on expli­cit per­mis­si­on from the pre­vious publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Docu­ment do not by this Licen­se give per­mis­si­on to use their names for publi­ci­ty for or to assert or imply endor­se­ment of any Modi­fied Version.


You may com­bi­ne the Docu­ment with other docu­ments released under this Licen­se, under the terms defi­ned in sec­tion 4 abo­ve for modi­fied ver­si­ons, pro­vi­ded that you include in the com­bi­na­ti­on all of the Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions of all of the ori­gi­nal docu­ments, unmo­di­fied, and list them all as Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions of your com­bi­ned work in its licen­se noti­ce, and that you pre­ser­ve all their War­ran­ty Disclaimers.

The com­bi­ned work need only con­tain one copy of this Licen­se, and mul­ti­ple iden­ti­cal Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions may be repla­ced with a sin­gle copy. If the­re are mul­ti­ple Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions with the same name but dif­fe­rent con­tents, make the title of each such sec­tion uni­que by adding at the end of it, in paren­the­ses, the name of the ori­gi­nal aut­hor or publisher of that sec­tion if known, or else a uni­que num­ber. Make the same adjus­t­ment to the sec­tion titles in the list of Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions in the licen­se noti­ce of the com­bi­ned work.

In the com­bi­na­ti­on, you must com­bi­ne any sec­tions Entit­led “Histo­ry” in the various ori­gi­nal docu­ments, forming one sec­tion Entit­led “Histo­ry”; like­wi­se com­bi­ne any sec­tions Entit­led “Ack­now­led­ge­ments”, and any sec­tions Entit­led “Dedi­ca­ti­ons”. You must dele­te all sec­tions Entit­led “Endor­se­ments”.


You may make a coll­ec­tion con­sis­ting of the Docu­ment and other docu­ments released under this Licen­se, and replace the indi­vi­du­al copies of this Licen­se in the various docu­ments with a sin­gle copy that is included in the coll­ec­tion, pro­vi­ded that you fol­low the rules of this Licen­se for ver­ba­tim copy­ing of each of the docu­ments in all other respects.

You may extra­ct a sin­gle docu­ment from such a coll­ec­tion, and dis­tri­bu­te it indi­vi­du­al­ly under this Licen­se, pro­vi­ded you insert a copy of this Licen­se into the extra­c­ted docu­ment, and fol­low this Licen­se in all other respects regar­ding ver­ba­tim copy­ing of that document.


A com­pi­la­ti­on of the Docu­ment or its deri­va­ti­ves with other sepa­ra­te and inde­pen­dent docu­ments or works, in or on a volu­me of a sto­rage or dis­tri­bu­ti­on medi­um, is cal­led an “aggre­ga­te” if the copy­right resul­ting from the com­pi­la­ti­on is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users bey­ond what the indi­vi­du­al works per­mit. When the Docu­ment is included in an aggre­ga­te, this Licen­se does not app­ly to the other works in the aggre­ga­te which are not them­sel­ves deri­va­ti­ve works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requi­re­ment of sec­tion 3 is appli­ca­ble to the­se copies of the Docu­ment, then if the Docu­ment is less than one half of the enti­re aggre­ga­te, the Document’s Cover Texts may be pla­ced on covers that bra­cket the Docu­ment within the aggre­ga­te, or the elec­tro­nic equi­va­lent of covers if the Docu­ment is in elec­tro­nic form. Other­wi­se they must appear on prin­ted covers that bra­cket the who­le aggregate.


Trans­la­ti­on is con­side­red a kind of modi­fi­ca­ti­on, so you may dis­tri­bu­te trans­la­ti­ons of the Docu­ment under the terms of sec­tion 4. Repla­cing Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions with trans­la­ti­ons requi­res spe­cial per­mis­si­on from their copy­right hol­ders, but you may include trans­la­ti­ons of some or all Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions in addi­ti­on to the ori­gi­nal ver­si­ons of the­se Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions. You may include a trans­la­ti­on of this Licen­se, and all the licen­se noti­ces in the Docu­ment, and any War­ran­ty Dis­clai­mers, pro­vi­ded that you also include the ori­gi­nal Eng­lish ver­si­on of this Licen­se and the ori­gi­nal ver­si­ons of tho­se noti­ces and dis­clai­mers. In case of a dis­agree­ment bet­ween the trans­la­ti­on and the ori­gi­nal ver­si­on of this Licen­se or a noti­ce or dis­clai­mer, the ori­gi­nal ver­si­on will prevail.

If a sec­tion in the Docu­ment is Entit­led “Ack­now­led­ge­ments”, “Dedi­ca­ti­ons”, or “Histo­ry”, the requi­re­ment (sec­tion 4) to Pre­ser­ve its Title (sec­tion 1) will typi­cal­ly requi­re chan­ging the actu­al title.


You may not copy, modi­fy, sub­li­cen­se, or dis­tri­bu­te the Docu­ment except as express­ly pro­vi­ded under this Licen­se. Any attempt other­wi­se to copy, modi­fy, sub­li­cen­se, or dis­tri­bu­te it is void, and will auto­ma­ti­cal­ly ter­mi­na­te your rights under this License.

Howe­ver, if you cea­se all vio­la­ti­on of this Licen­se, then your licen­se from a par­ti­cu­lar copy­right hol­der is rein­sta­ted (a) pro­vi­sio­nal­ly, unless and until the copy­right hol­der expli­cit­ly and final­ly ter­mi­na­tes your licen­se, and (b) per­ma­nent­ly, if the copy­right hol­der fails to noti­fy you of the vio­la­ti­on by some reasonable means pri­or to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreo­ver, your licen­se from a par­ti­cu­lar copy­right hol­der is rein­sta­ted per­ma­nent­ly if the copy­right hol­der noti­fies you of the vio­la­ti­on by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have recei­ved noti­ce of vio­la­ti­on of this Licen­se (for any work) from that copy­right hol­der, and you cure the vio­la­ti­on pri­or to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Ter­mi­na­ti­on of your rights under this sec­tion does not ter­mi­na­te the licen­ses of par­ties who have recei­ved copies or rights from you under this Licen­se. If your rights have been ter­mi­na­ted and not per­ma­nent­ly rein­sta­ted, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same mate­ri­al does not give you any rights to use it.


The Free Soft­ware Foun­da­ti­on may publish new, revi­sed ver­si­ons of the GNU Free Docu­men­ta­ti­on Licen­se from time to time. Such new ver­si­ons will be simi­lar in spi­rit to the pre­sent ver­si­on, but may dif­fer in detail to address new pro­blems or con­cerns. See

Each ver­si­on of the Licen­se is given a distin­gu­is­hing ver­si­on num­ber. If the Docu­ment spe­ci­fies that a par­ti­cu­lar num­be­red ver­si­on of this Licen­se “or any later ver­si­on” appli­es to it, you have the opti­on of fol­lo­wing the terms and con­di­ti­ons eit­her of that spe­ci­fied ver­si­on or of any later ver­si­on that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­ti­on. If the Docu­ment does not spe­ci­fy a ver­si­on num­ber of this Licen­se, you may choo­se any ver­si­on ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­ti­on. If the Docu­ment spe­ci­fies that a pro­xy can deci­de which future ver­si­ons of this Licen­se can be used, that proxy’s public state­ment of accep­tance of a ver­si­on per­ma­nent­ly aut­ho­ri­zes you to choo­se that ver­si­on for the Document.


“Mas­si­ve Mul­ti­aut­hor Col­la­bo­ra­ti­on Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web ser­ver that publishes copy­righ­ta­ble works and also pro­vi­des pro­mi­nent faci­li­ties for any­bo­dy to edit tho­se works. A public wiki that any­bo­dy can edit is an exam­p­le of such a ser­ver. A “Mas­si­ve Mul­ti­aut­hor Col­la­bo­ra­ti­on” (or “MMC”) con­tai­ned in the site means any set of copy­righ­ta­ble works thus published on the MMC site.

“CC-BY-SA” means the Crea­ti­ve Com­mons Attri­bu­ti­on-Share Ali­ke 3.0 licen­se published by Crea­ti­ve Com­mons Cor­po­ra­ti­on, a not-for-pro­fit cor­po­ra­ti­on with a prin­ci­pal place of busi­ness in San Fran­cis­co, Cali­for­nia, as well as future copy­left ver­si­ons of that licen­se published by that same organization.

“Incor­po­ra­te” means to publish or repu­blish a Docu­ment, in who­le or in part, as part of ano­ther Document.

An MMC is “eli­gi­ble for reli­cen­sing” if it is licen­sed under this Licen­se, and if all works that were first published under this Licen­se some­whe­re other than this MMC, and sub­se­quent­ly incor­po­ra­ted in who­le or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or inva­ri­ant sec­tions, and (2) were thus incor­po­ra­ted pri­or to Novem­ber 1, 2008.

The ope­ra­tor of an MMC Site may repu­blish an MMC con­tai­ned in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time befo­re August 1, 2009, pro­vi­ded the MMC is eli­gi­ble for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this Licen­se in a docu­ment you have writ­ten, include a copy of the Licen­se in the docu­ment and put the fol­lo­wing copy­right and licen­se noti­ces just after the title page:

    Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
    Free Documentation License".

If you have Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with … Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Inva­ri­ant Sec­tions wit­hout Cover Texts, or some other com­bi­na­ti­on of the three, mer­ge tho­se two alter­na­ti­ves to suit the situation.

If your docu­ment con­ta­ins non­tri­vi­al examp­les of pro­gram code, we recom­mend releasing the­se examp­les in par­al­lel under your choice of free soft­ware licen­se, such as the GNU Gene­ral Public Licen­se, to per­mit their use in free software.


„Unse­re Mis­si­on ist die Frei­heit zu bewah­ren, zu schüt­zen und zu för­dern, um Rech­ner­soft­ware nut­zen, unter­su­chen, kopie­ren, modi­fi­zie­ren und wei­ter­ver­brei­ten zu kön­nen und die Rech­te von Freie-Soft­ware-Nut­zern zu verteidigen.“

Die Free Soft­ware Foun­da­ti­on ist der orga­ni­sa­to­ri­sche Haupt­spon­sor des GNU-Betriebs­sys­tems. Unter­stüt­zen Sie GNU und die FSF durch den Kauf von Hand­bü­chern und Klei­dung, als asso­zi­ier­tes Mit­glied oder mit einer Spen­de direkt an die FSF oder via Flattr.

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